Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 50.
Urban development is having a direct impact on the weather in many cities worldwide. It has been noticed that the difference (1) ______ temperature is usually greater at night and the phenomenon occurs in both winter and summer. Experts agree that this is due to urban development, when open green spaces are replaced with asphalt roads and tall brick or concrete buildings. These materials retain heat generated by the Sun and release it through the night. In Atlanta, in the US, this has even led to thunderstorms (2) ______ occur in the morning rather than, as is more common, in the afternoon.
Large cities around the world are adopting strategies to combat this issue (3) ______ it is not uncommon to find plants growing on top of roofs or down the walls of large buildings. In Singapore, the government has (4) ______ to transform it into a “city within a garden” and, in 2006, they held an international competition calling for entries to develop a master plan to help bring this about. One outcome was the creation of 18 “Supertrees” – metal constructions resembling very tall trees. Each one is a vertical freestanding garden and is (5) ______ to exotic plants and ferns. They also contain solar panels used to light the trees at night and also containers to collect rainwater, making them truly self-sufficient.
(Adapted from “The Official Cambridge Guide to IELTS” by Pauline Cullen, Amanda French and Vanessa Jakeman)
Question 1: A. on
Question 2: A. when
Question 3: A. or
Question 4: A. pledged
Question 5: A. home
The knock-on effect of volunteering on the lives of individuals can be profound. Voluntary work helps foster independence and imparts the ability to deal with different situations, often simultaneously, thus teaching people how to (6) ______ their way through different systems. It therefore brings people into touch with the real world; and, hence, equips them for the future.
Initially, young adults in their late teens might not seem to have the expertise or knowledge to impart to others that say a teacher or an agriculturalist or a nurse would have, (7) ______ they do have many skills that can help others. And in the absence of any particular talent, their energy and enthusiasm can be harnessed for the benefit (8) ______ their fellow human beings, and ultimately themselves. From all this, the gain to any community no matter how many volunteers are involved is (9) ______.
Employers will generally look favorably on people (10) ______ have shown an ability to work as part of a team. It demonstrates a willingness to learn and an independent spirit, which would be desirable qualities in any employee.
(Adapted from “IELTS Testbuilder 2” by Sam McCarter)
Question 6: A. take
Question 7: A. but
Question 8: A. under
Question 9: A. impassable
Question 10: A. which
When hosting an Olympic Games, a country has to take account of several considerations, among which the financial one is by far the most important. The costs of hosting the Olympics can (11) ______ tens of billions of dollars, and it is commonplace for budgets to double or even triple. In addition to the direct costs of hosting the Games (the opening and closing ceremonies, athletes’ village, security, etc.), cities often must build expensive new venues (12) ______ lesser-known sports. Once constructed, sports venues often incur additional maintenance costs long after the Games have ended.
While costs are the (13) ______ concern for a host city, there are other factors to consider. For one, an Olympic host city may receive substantial revenue from ticket sales, tourist spending, corporate sponsorship, and television rights. Cities such as Los Angeles (1984) and Seoul (1988) actually made a large profit from the Games they hosted. (14) ______, hosting the Olympic Games confers prestige on a host city and country, which can lead to increased trade and tourism. The Olympics are also an opportunity to invest in projects (15) ______ improve the city’s quality of life, such as new transportation systems.
(Adapted from “Skillful Reading & Writing 4” by Mike Boyle and Lindsay Warwick)
Question 11: A. outnumber
Question 12: A. on
Question 13: A. instrumental
Question 14: A. In addition
C. For example
Question 15: A. which
Taking piano lessons and solving math puzzles on a computer significantly improve specific math skills of elementary schoolchildren, according to a new study. The results, (16) ______ were published in the journal Neurological Research , are the latest in a series that links musical training to the development of higher brain functions.
Researchers worked with 135 second-grade students at a school in Los Angeles after (17) ______ a pilot study with 102 students. Children that were given four months of piano training as well as time playing (18) ______ newly designed computer software scored 27 percent higher on math and fraction tests than other children.
Piano instruction is thought to enhance the brain’s “hard wiring” for spatial-temporal reasoning, or the ability to visualise and transform objects in space and time, says Professor Gordon Shaw, who led the study. At the same time, the computer game allows children to solve geometric and math puzzles that boost their ability to (19) ______ shapes in their mind.
The findings are significant (20) ______ a grasp of proportional math and fractions is a prerequisite to math at higher levels, and children who do not master these areas of math cannot understand more advanced math that is critical to high-tech fields.
(Adapted from “Eye on Editing 2” by Joyce S. Cain)
Question 16: A. whose
Question 17: A. conducting
Question 18: A. for
Question 19: A. manipulate
Question 20: A. before
The fictitious androids written about in the mid-1900s are becoming a reality with advances in the field of robotics. Japan and Korea have been pioneers in this field. They regularly compete to be the first. The focus on most researchers is in (21) ______ life-like, attractive female androids. A Japanese research group led by Hiroshi Ishiguro created their world’s first female android, which is called Actroid in 2003. The early model was limited so upgrades were made and the dramatic entertainment model was released in 2006. Actroids are covered with a silicone skin and have built-in sensors making them (22) ______ of reacting to humans, and they can also mimic many human behaviors. (23) ______, they can be programmed to speak in any language. The Korean android, EveR-2, released in 2006, was designed by a team from Kitech. They claim that she is more life-like than Actroids, and she can mimic emotions. She can also speak and move her lips to match her (24) ______. Future models are expected to have higher mobility and even be proficient in dancing. Research teams have also created male androids. One in particular is the Geminoid HI-I.
Regardless of the competition, it’s clear that this technology will one day present us (25) ______ the dilemma of determining human from machine.
Question 21: A. creating
Question 22: A. able
Question 23: A. Therefore
Question 24: A. spoken
Question 25: A. for
Many adults in America and increasing numbers elsewhere take part in mentoring schemes. A mentor is an adult who provides support and friendship to a young person. There are numerous different (26) ______ of mentoring: passing on skills, sharing experiences, offering guidance. Sometimes the most helpful thing to do is just listen. Mentoring is open to anybody – no particular (27) ______ experience is required, just a desire to make a difference to the life of a young person who needs help. This may seem a difficult thing at first, but many people find they have a real talent for it.
The support of a mentor can play an important part in a child’s development and can often make
up (28) ______ a lack of guidance in a young person’s life. It can also improve young people’s attitudes towards society and build up their confidence in dealing with life’s challenges. For the mentor, it can be incredibly rewarding to know that they have had a significant influence on a child and helped to give the best possible (29) ______ in life. Indeed, it is not only adults who are capable of taking on this role. There is now an increasing (30) ______ for teenagers to mentor young children, for example by helping them with reading or other school work.
Question 26: A. time
Question 27: A. difficult
Question 28: A. with
Question 29: A. difficulty
Question 30: A. wish
(31) ______ in technology have made a lot of changes to our everyday lifestyles, but one of the biggest has got to be how we read books. Since the invention of the e–book, there has been a significant change to our reading habits. Given the choice between taking a couple of heavy paperbacks on holiday or an e–book device like a Kindle, most of us, including our parents and grandparents, would unsurprisingly opt (32) ______ the Kindle.
But what would our lives be like with no books at all? It’s a (33) ______ question. Some educational specialists are making predictions that in the future we won’t even see books in classrooms – everything will be done online! (34) ______ of the idea of getting rid of books say that there will always be a need for paper–based versions of materials. However, to be realistic, we have to accept that there is a (35) ______ chance that in a decade’s time schools and classrooms will be book-free! What do you think of that?
Question 31: A. Progression
Question 32: A. of
Question 33: A. special
Question 34: A. Alternatives
Question 35: A. remote
Seeking a new life and hoping for a significant (36) ______ in their standard of living, foreign workers began flocking into Western Europe during the 1950s. In Britain, some of the first immigrants arriving from the West Indies and the Indian subcontinent were welcomed by brass bands, but the dream of a new life soon (37) ______ sour for many.
Attracted by the promise to earn good money and learn new skills, the reality they found was often one of low wages and, in many cases, unemployment. Some did not adapt (38) ______ to life in a country of cold weather and discrimination. The (39) ______ of West Indian immigrants moved into the inner cities, areas that were already fraught with social tensions caused by poverty and poor housing. There were cases of open hostility towards the newcomers; riots (40) ______ out in Notting Hill, West London in 1958, when gangs of white youths began taunting immigrants.
However, despite the numerous difficulties they encountered, many foreign workers did manage to adjust to their new conditions, settling in their new adopted country and prospering. Their contribution had the effect of not only speeding up the pace of economic change in the postwar period, but also transforming Western Europe into a multiracial society.
Question 36: A. change
Question 37: A. converted
Question 38: A. closely
Question 39: A. number
Question 40: A. carried
It is true that digital manufacturing does cut out the middle-man. More and more routine, repetitive assembly tasks will be taken (41) ______ by machines. But as certain jobs disappear, new ones open up in other parts of the factory. Germany in many ways exemplifies this trend. Today, German manufacturers (42) ______ three times more robots than U.S. companies, but they also still employ more humans. Relative to the size of our economies, German’s manufacturing workforce is twice the size of America’s.
From its very beginning, the fourth Industrial revolution has never presented manufacturers with an either-or choice – robots or humans. It has always been about combining the talents of (43) ______. (44) ______, it is the convergence of artificial and human intelligence that will enable manufacturers to achieve a new era of speed, flexibility, efficiency and connectivity in the 21st century. Machines have the ability to assemble things faster than any human ever could, but humans possess the analytics, domain expertise and valuable knowledge (45) ______ to solve problems and optimize factory floor production.
(Adapted from : http://time.com/4940374/joe-kaeser-siemens-robots-jobs/)
Question 41: A. in
Question 42: A. deploy
Question 43: A. ones
Question 44: A. Alternatively
Question 45: A. required
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. At the Earth’s surface, earthquakes are recognized (46) ______ vibration, shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. The vibrations may vary in (47) ______. They are caused mostly by slippage within geological faults, but also by other events such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests. The underground point of (48) ______ of the earthquake is called the focus. The point directly above the focus on the surface is called the epicenter. Earthquakes by themselves rarely kill people or wildlife. It is usually the secondary events (49) ______ they trigger, such as building collapse, fires, tsunamis (seismic sea waves) and volcanoes, which are actually the human disaster. Many of these could possibly be avoided by better construction, safety systems, early warning and (50) ______ planning.
(Encarta, DVD, 2009)
Question 46: A. in
Question 47: A. magnitude
Question 48: A. source
Question 49: A. who
Question 50: A. evacuator
|1. C||2. B||3. C||4. A||5. A||6. B||7. A||8. B||9. D||10. D|
|11. B||12. D||13. B||14. A||15. A||16. B||17. A||18. D||19. A||20. B|
|21. A||22. D||23. C||24. B||25. B||26. C||27. D||28. B||29. B||30. C|
|31. D||32. C||33. D||34. C||35. A||36. A||37. B||38. B||39. C||40. C|
|41. D||42. A||43. C||44. B||45. A||46. B||47. A||48. B||49. C||50. D|
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